Ukraine is an independent state in eastern Europe that shares a border with Russia to its east.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Great Lakes : Map of the Great Lakes with surrounding states and provinces.
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Strawberry Quartz is a red to pink quartz with inclusions that look like strawberry seeds.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Troglobites are creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in the darkness of a cave.
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
What is LNG? Liquefied Natural Gas. The gas is condensed into a liquid for efficient transport.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Curling Stones are made from a special type of granite, found at just a few locations worldwide.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Geology Tools - Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
The Green River Formation is one of the most famous rock units in the world for its fossils.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Helium is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
ceiling light - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Crystal Habit is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Map of the Oceans - showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
Copper is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Photo/Card holder are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Where Are the Canary Islands? Off the northwest coast of Africa, 60 miles west of Morocco.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Spatter Cones are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.
Andalusite is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
The Doorway to Hell is a flaming sinkhole seeping natural gas that has been burning for decades.